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State v. Zeitner

Court of Appeals of Arizona, First Division

January 16, 2018

STATE OF ARIZONA, Appellee,
v.
CHALICE RENEE ZEITNER, Appellant.

          Appeal from the Superior Court in Maricopa County No. CR2015-000299-001 The Honorable Michael W. Kemp, Judge The Honorable Pamela S. Gates, Judge

          Arizona Attorney General's Office, Phoenix By Michael T. O'Toole Counsel for Appellee

          Maricopa County Public Defender's Office, Phoenix By Mikel Steinfeld Counsel for Appellant

          Judge Diane M. Johnsen delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Presiding Judge Lawrence F. Winthrop and Judge Maria Elena Cruz joined.

          OPINION

          JOHNSEN, Judge:

         ¶1 Chalice Zeitner was convicted of defrauding the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (" AHCCCS") by lying to a physician to obtain coverage for an abortion. On appeal, she argues the superior court breached the physician-patient privilege by admitting her medical records and allowing her physicians to testify against her. We hold the privilege is abrogated by statute in cases of suspected AHCCCS fraud and affirm Zeitner's convictions.

         FACTS AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND

         ¶2 Zeitner went to a Phoenix obstetrician for an abortion in March 2010. She told him she just had discovered she was pregnant after recently undergoing extensive radiation and chemotherapy treatments for cancer. Zeitner said she wanted an abortion because she thought the radiation and chemotherapy likely had harmed her fetus. After examining Zeitner, however, the obstetrician concluded she was well-nourished and healthy, about 20 weeks' pregnant and in no acute distress. Accordingly, he proposed a course of care designed to avoid an abortion. He told Zeitner to obtain information from her cancer physicians about her treatments and referred her to a specialist in high-risk pregnancies in the hope that she could deliver a viable baby.

         ¶3 Zeitner met with the specialist a few days later. Examining Zeitner, the specialist grew suspicious. He thought it unusual that, although Zeitner told him she had a diagnosed malignant uterine tumor, the physicians treating her cancer had not removed her uterus. Zeitner told the specialist her main chemotherapy drug was acetaminophen-an over-the-counter pain reliever, not a chemotherapy drug. And Zeitner was unable to relate details of her cancer diagnosis or treatment, other than that she had been diagnosed at a hospital in Boston. From an ultrasound, the specialist saw no abnormalities that compelled an abortion. He reported his concerns about Zeitner's veracity to the obstetrician.

         ¶4 A few days later, Zeitner successfully applied for AHCCCS benefits.[1] AHCCCS had turned down an application Zeitner had submitted just a month before, citing insufficient documentation. Although Zeitner's earlier application had said she had no serious or chronic illnesses, on the application she submitted in late March, Zeitner stated she had a serious chronic illness and said her pregnancy was high-risk and life-threatening.

         ¶5 On March 31, the obstetrician received an email signed "Al Zeitner" that seemed to be following up on behalf of Chalice Zeitner.[2] Referencing Chalice in the third person, the email stated the author was waiting to hear back from the obstetrician about a "procedure" that he purportedly had proposed. The email suggested the procedure was urgent, stating:

Chalice is scheduled to resume chemo and radiotherapy on April 9th. She must have the tumors removed in the next 4 weeks. She is on bedrest and supervised care in her home until notice from [the Phoenix obstetrician] of this procedure.

         ¶6 Shortly thereafter, Zeitner brought the obstetrician a letter dated April 1, purportedly written by a "Dr. McMahon" at the Boston hospital Zeitner claimed had treated her for cancer. The letter recommended that Zeitner "receive an urgent [abortion] . . . to relieve third term life-threatening certainties to the patient." Attached to the letter was a list of chemotherapy and radiotherapy medications purportedly prescribed to Zeitner. (Although a physician named McMahon actually practiced at the Boston hospital at the time, he had never treated Zeitner and had not written the letter or created the list of medications Zeitner gave to him.)

         ¶7 Accepting the letter as authentic, the obstetrician concluded Zeitner urgently needed an abortion. Based on his opinion that an abortion was necessary to protect Zeitner's health, AHCCCS authorized payment, and the obstetrician aborted Zeitner's fetus on April 9.

         ¶8 Meanwhile, Zeitner launched a scheme to garner donations from friends and others to fund her purported cancer treatments. Using the name "Trinity McLaughlin, " Zeitner sent a social media message to her boyfriend, informing him that "Trinity" and a few others had created a webpage to raise funds for Zeitner's cancer treatments and suggesting the boyfriend take over the fundraising effort. The next week, "Trinity" emailed the boyfriend fundraising materials for him to use, including a heartrending plea for donations detailing Zeitner's cancer, her costly painful treatments and her resulting financial hardships.

         ¶9 Acting on "Trinity's" request, the boyfriend posted on a fundraising website the story "Trinity" had sent him, forwarded "Dr. McMahon's" letter to the website to satisfy its request for proof that Zeitner actually had a medical condition, opened a bank account for donations, and solicited more than 600 social media friends to help pay for the purported cancer treatments. In response, more than 20 people donated a cumulative total of more than $2, 000 to Zeitner's cancer fund via the website.

         ¶10 Several months later, Zeitner became pregnant again, and the Phoenix obstetrician delivered her child by caesarean section. During the procedure, the obstetrician saw no evidence that tumors had been removed from Zeitner's uterus or that she had undergone chemotherapy or radiation. By then highly suspicious about Zeitner's claimed cancer, the obstetrician contacted Dr. McMahon at the Boston hospital, who said he had not treated Zeitner nor authored the letter ...


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