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In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit

January 22, 2019

In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; DavidMcCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Bishop, Heenan & Davies, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.;Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; DavidMcCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Law Office of Maloney & Campolo, LLP, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees .In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; WolfgangSteudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, James Ben Feinman; Ronald Clark Fleshman, Jr., Objectors-Appellants,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Lemberg Law, LLC, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Nagel Rice, LLP, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Strong Law Offices, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Hyde & Swigart, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, The Driscoll Firm, P.C., Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Viles and Beckman, LLC, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Holton Law Firm, PLLC, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Makarem & Associates, APLC, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG;Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans; Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta;Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David Mccarthy; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Law Office of Samuel W. Bearman, LLC; Sellers Skievaski Kuder LLP; Artice McGraw, PA, Objectors-Appellants,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans;Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Harrell & Nowak, LLC, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans;Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Egolf Ferlic Harwood, LLC, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans;Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Ryder Law Firm, P.C., Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans;Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Scott Moen; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Paul S. Rothstein, Objector-Appellant,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees. In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation, Jason Hill; Ray Preciado; Susan Tarrence; Steven R. Thornton; Anne Duncan Argento; Simon W. Beaven; Juliet Brodie; Sarah Burt; Aimee Epstein; George Farquar; Mark Houle; Rebecca Kaplan; Helen Koisk-Westly; Raymond Krein; Stephen Verner; Leo Winternitz; Marcus Alexander Doege; Leslie Maclise-Kane; Timothy Watson; Farrah P. Bell; Jerry Lawhon; Michael R. Cruise; John C. Dufurrena; Scott Bahr; Karl Fry; Cesar Olmos; Britney Lynne Schnathorst; Carla Berg; Aaron Joy; Eric Davidson White; Floyd Beck Warren; Thomas J. Buchberger; Russell Evans;Carmel Rubin; Daniel Sullivan; Matthew Cure; Denise de Fiesta; Mark Rovner; Wolfgang Steudel; Anne Mahle; David McCarthy; Ryan Joseph Schuette; Megan Walawender; Joseph Morrey; Michael Lorenz; Nancy L. Stirek; Rebecca Perlmutter; Addison Minott; Richard Grogan; Alan Bandics; Melani Buchanan Farmer; Kevin Bedard; Elizabeth Bedard; Cynthia R. Kirtland; Michael Charles Krimmelbein; Will Harlan; Heather Greenfield; Thomas W. Ayala; Herbert Yussim; Nicholas Bond; Brian J. Bialecki; Katherine Mehls; Whitney Powers; Roy McNeal; Brett Alters; Kelly R. King; Rachel Otto; William Andrew Wilson; David Ebenstein; Mark Schumacher; Chad Dial; Joseph Herr; Kurt Mallery; Marion B. Moore; Laura Swenson; Brian Nicholas Mills, Plaintiffs-Appellees, Hawks Quindel, S.C.; Habush Habush & Rottier, S.C., Objectors-Appellants,
v.
Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.; Volkswagen, AG; Audi, AG; Audi of America, LLC; Porsche Cars North America, Inc.; Robert Bosch GMBH; Robert Bosch, LLC, Defendants-Appellees.

          Argued and Submitted December 19, 2018

          Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of California Charles R. Breyer, District Judge, Presiding

          Bruce H. Nagel (argued) and Diane E. Sammons, Nagel Rice, LLP, Roseland, New Jersey; James B. Feinman (argued), James B. Feinman & Associates, Lynchburg, California; Sara Khosroabadi and Joshua B. Swigart, Hyde & Swigart, San Diego, California; for Objectors-Appellants.

          Samuel Issacharoff (argued), New York, New York; Kevin R. Budner, David S. Stellings, and Elizabeth J. Cabraser, Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein LLP, San Francisco, California; Robin L. Greenwald, Weitz & Luxenberg P.C., New York, New York; Christopher A. Seeger, Seeger Weiss LLP, New York, New York; Paul J. Geller, Robbins Geller Rudman & Dowd LLP, Boca Raton, Florida; Lynn Lincoln Sarko, Keller Rohrback L.L.P., Seattle, Washington; Michael D. Hausfeld, Hausfeld LLP, Washington, D.C.; Jayne Conroy, Simmons Hanly Conroy LLC, New York, New York; Roxanne Barton Conlin, Roxanne Conlin & Associates P.C., Des Moines, Iowa; Joseph F. Rice, Motley Rice LLC, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina; Michael Everett Heygood, Heygood Orr & Pearson, Irving, Texas; Adam J. Levitt, Dicello Levitt & Casey LLC, Chicago, Illinois; Frank Mario Pitre, Cotchett Pitre & McCarthy LLP, Burlingame, California; James E. Cecchi and Carella, Byrne, Cecchi Olstein Brody & Agnello P.C., Roseland, New Jersey; David Boies, Boies Schiller & Flexner LLP, Armonk, New York; W. Daniel "Dee" Miles III, Beasley Allen Law Firm, Montgomery, Alabama; Benjamin L. Bailey, Bailey Glasser LLP, Charleston, West Virginia; Steve W. Berman, Hagens Berman, Seattle, Washington; Rosemary M. Rivas, Levi & Korsinsky LLP, San Francisco, California; David Seabold Casey Jr., Casey Gerry Schenk Franca Villa Blatt & Penfield LLP, San Diego, California; J. Gerard Stranch IV, Branstetter Stranch & Jennings, PLLC, Nashville, Tennessee; Lesley E. Weaver, Bleichmar Fonti & Auld LLP, Oakland, California; Roland K. Tellis, Baron & Budd P.C., Encino, California; for Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Sharon Nelles (argued), Andrew J. Finn, William B. Monahan, and Robert J. Giuffra, Jr., Sullivan & Cromwell LLP, New York, New York, for Defendants-Appellees.

          Before: MILAN D. SMITH, JR. and JACQUELINE H. NGUYEN, Circuit Judges, and JANE A. RESTANI, [*] Judge.

         SUMMARY [**]

         Attorneys' Fees / Class Action

         The panel affirmed the district court's order denying the 244 motions for attorneys' fees filed by non-class counsel, arising from an underlying class action that secured a settlement of more than $10 billion and an additional award of $175 million in fees for class counsel, in a multi-district litigation concerning claims predicated on Volkswagen's use of defeat devices in certain VW and Audi diesel vehicles.

         The panel held that appellants, who were law firms and lawyers that appealed in their own names (with the exception of appellant Ronald Clark Fleshman, Jr. who joined his attorney's appeal), had standing to challenge the fee order. The panel concluded, as a matter of first impression, that appellants had standing because they suffered an injury (deprivation of attorneys' fees) that was caused by the conduct complained of (the fee order) and would be redressed by judicial relief.

         Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23 permits an award of fees when authorized by law or the parties' agreement, and courts have an independent obligation to ensure that the award, like the settlement itself, is reasonable. Because the underlying class action did not feature a traditional common fund from which attorneys' fees were procured, appellants could only have collected fees if they provided a substantial benefit to the class. The panel concluded that the district court did not abuse its discretion when it determined that the efforts of non-class counsel for which they sought fees did not benefit the class such that they would be entitled to compensation.

         The panel rejected three additional arguments advanced by Nagel Rice LLP and others (the Nagel Appellants). The panel held that the district court's order supplied the necessary level of explanation for its decision. The panel also held that there was no agreement between the parties, either explicit or implicit, that Volkswagen would compensate the Nagel Appellants for their efforts. Finally, the panel held that the Nagel Appellants improperly invoked quantum meruit where non-class counsel did not substantially benefit the class; and no unjust enrichment occurred.

         Appellant James Ben Feinman's separate brief challenged the district court's injunction enjoining efforts to assert attorney fee lien claims under State law. The panel held that because the district court vacated the lien order and its injunction, all of the issues contained in Feinman's brief were rendered moot, and the panel need not consider them.

          OPINION

          M. SMITH, Circuit Judge:

         Appellants are lawyers and law firms that represented class members in an underlying class action that secured a settlement of more than $10 billion and an additional award of $175 million in fees for class counsel. Non-class counsel filed 244 motions for attorneys' fees. In a single order, the district court denied all of the motions, determining that the lawyers neither performed common benefit work nor followed the proper procedures for compensation. We affirm.[1]

         FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND

         I. Factual Background

         On September 18, 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Notice of Violation (NOV) in which it alleged that Defendants-Appellees Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Volkswagen, AG, and Audi, AG (collectively, Volkswagen) used "defeat devices" in 500, 000 Volkswagen- and Audi-branded TDI "clean diesel" vehicles. As the district court later explained,

[T]he defeat device produces regulation-compliant results when it senses the vehicle is undergoing testing, but operates a less effective emissions control system when the vehicle is driven under normal circumstances. It was only by using the defeat device that Volkswagen was able to obtain Certificates of Conformity from EPA and Executive Orders from [the California Air Resources Board] for its TDI diesel engine vehicles. In reality, these vehicles emit nitrogen oxides ("NOx") at a factor of up to 40 times over the permitted limit.

         Two months later, the EPA issued a second NOV to Volkswagen and Defendant-Appellee Porsche Cars of North America, Inc., which implicated the companies' 3.0-liter diesel engine vehicles.

         II. Procedural Background

         A. Commencement of Lawsuits

         Soon after the issuance of the NOVs, consumers nationwide commenced hundreds of lawsuits. One such action was spearheaded by Appellant Nagel Rice, LLP (Nagel Rice), an illustrative law firm that represented forty-three Volkswagen owners from various states. Nagel Rice filed a complaint in New Jersey federal court on September 21, 2015-three days after the issuance of the first NOV and two months before the eventual consolidation of all related cases. During this early representation, Nagel Rice asserts that it performed various activities related to the litigation, including conducting research, fielding calls from prospective clients and the media, and communicating with German legal counsel regarding potential jurisdictional and evidentiary issues.

         Eventually, on December 8, 2015, the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation consolidated the various lawsuits and transferred them to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. Ultimately, the district court received more than one thousand Volkswagen cases as part of this multidistrict litigation (MDL), titled In re Volkswagen "Clean Diesel" Marketing, Sales Practices, & Products Liability Litigation, MDL 2672.

         B. Pretrial Orders

         On December 9, 2015-the day after the consolidation and transfer-the district court issued its first pretrial order (PTO), in which it announced its intent "to appoint a Plaintiffs' Steering Committee(s) to conduct and coordinate the pretrial stage of this litigation with the defendants' representatives or committee." Nagel Rice was one of the firms that submitted papers to be selected either as Lead Counsel or as a member of the Plaintiffs' Steering Committee (PSC).

         The district court selected a twenty-one-member PSC following the application process, and appointed it and Lead Counsel (together, Class Counsel) in its seventh PTO (PTO No. 7). This PTO asserted that "as to all matters common to the coordinated cases, and to the fullest extent consistent with the independent fiduciary obligations owed by any and all plaintiffs' counsel to their clients and any putative class, [] pretrial proceedings shall [be] conducted by and through the PSC."

         In its eleventh PTO (PTO No. 11), filed on February 25, 2016, the district court outlined its protocol for common benefit work and expenses. The court explained that "[t]he recovery of common benefit attorneys' fees and cost reimbursements will be limited to 'Participating Counsel, '" which it defined as

Lead Counsel and members of the Plaintiffs' Steering Committee (along with members and staff of their respective firms), any other counsel authorized by Lead Counsel to perform work that may be considered for common benefit compensation, and/or counsel who have been specifically approved by this Court as Participating Counsel prior to incurring any such cost or expense.

         It further elaborated that "Participating Counsel shall be eligible to receive common benefit attorneys' fees and reimbursement of costs and expenses only if the time expended, costs incurred, and activity in question were (a) for the common benefit of Plaintiffs; (b) timely submitted; and (c) reasonable." As to the first requirement-"for the common benefit of Plaintiffs"-the district court explained that

[o]nly Court-appointed Counsel and those attorneys working on assignments therefrom that require them to review, analyze, or summarize those filings or Orders in connection with their assignments are doing so for the common benefit. All other counsel are reviewing those filings and Orders for their own benefit and that of their respective clients and such review will not be considered Common Benefit Work.

(emphasis added). Class Counsel later reported that "Lead Counsel took advantage of the authority granted in PTO 7 to enlist and authorize nearly 100 additional firms to perform the necessary common benefit work, which was then tracked pursuant to the protocol set forth in PTO 11."[2]

         The PTOs' guidance notwithstanding, Nagel Rice claims that, although it was not selected to be Lead Counsel or a member of the PSC, it "appeared telephonically in almost every court appearance relative to the case and provided continual updates to clients via email," and "fielded scores of telephone calls from clients and other class members seeking information relative to the settlement and the process for submitting objections and claims." Similarly, another lawyer, Appellant James Ben Feinman, extensively litigated on behalf of 403 individual clients in Virginia state and federal courts, in addition to monitoring the MDL. There is no indication in the record that Nagel Rice, Feinman, or any other Appellants fully complied with the PTOs in performing these efforts.

         C. Settlement Process

         Class Counsel, along with ninety-seven additional plaintiffs' firms that Lead Counsel enlisted pursuant to PTO

          No. 11, embarked on an aggressive settlement process that, in the words of Settlement Master Robert S. Mueller III, "involved at least 40 meetings and in-person conferences at various locations, including San Francisco, New York City, and Washington, DC, over a five-month period. A number of these sessions lasted many hours, both early and late, and weekends were not excluded." The efforts undertaken by this group included drafting a 719-page consolidated class action complaint, selecting class representatives, requesting and reviewing more than 12 million pages of Volkswagen documents, and conducting settlement negotiations.

         The district court preliminarily approved the resulting Consolidated Consumer Class Action Settlement (the Settlement) on July 29, 2016. In their motion for preliminary approval, the class action's plaintiffs (Plaintiffs) asserted that "[n]one of the settlement benefits for Class Members will be reduced to pay attorneys' fees or to reimburse expenses of Class Counsel. Volkswagen will pay ...


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