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State v. Sallard

Court of Appeals of Arizona, Second Division

October 11, 2019

The State of Arizona, Appellee,
v.
Maria Liliana Sallard, Appellant.

          Appeal from the Superior Court in Cochise County No. CR201500359 The Honorable Wallace R. Hoggatt, Judge.

          Mark Brnovich, Arizona Attorney General Joseph T. Maziarz, Chief Counsel By Casey D. Ball, Assistant Attorney General, Phoenix Counsel for Appellee.

          Robert J. Zohlmann, Tombstone Counsel for Appellant.

          Chief Judge Vásquez authored the opinion of the Court, in which Presiding Judge Staring and Judge Brearcliffe concurred.

          OPINION

          Vásquez, Chief Judge.

         ¶1 After a jury trial, Maria Sallard was convicted of conspiracy to commit transportation of marijuana for sale, transportation of marijuana for sale, possession of drug paraphernalia, and making a false statement to a law enforcement agency. The trial court sentenced her to concurrent prison terms, the longest of which are 4.25 years. On appeal, Sallard argues the court erred by denying her motion to suppress the data collected from her cell phone during a search after she had invoked her rights pursuant to Miranda.[1]She also argues the court erred by considering extrinsic evidence from her codefendant's suppression hearing without permitting her to confront and cross-examine the witnesses. For the following reasons, we affirm.

         Factual and Procedural Background

         ¶2 We view the evidence and all reasonable inferences therefrom in the light most favorable to affirming Sallard's convictions. See State v. Miles, 211 Ariz. 475, ¶ 2 (App. 2005). One evening in July 2014, Detective Jeffrey Richardson saw a white truck being driven by Sheri Hogan with Sallard as a passenger. The truck had "two [old] bales of hay in the . . . pickup bed of the vehicle." Richardson followed the truck and observed speed and lane-usage violations. He also noticed that Hogan was "watching [him] very closely in the rear view or side view mirrors" and that Sallard was "moving stuff around in the back seat." Because of the traffic violations, Richardson "activated [his traffic] equipment" and stopped the truck.

         ¶3 As Richardson approached the truck, he noticed Sallard had her cell phone in her hand and asked her to put it away. He then asked Hogan and Sallard for their information-Sallard provided a false name, which she later admitted. Richardson then asked Hogan to step out of her truck so that he could write a warning for the traffic violations. While writing the warning, Richardson asked Hogan about her whereabouts for the day. As Hogan responded, Richardson observed her "getting nervous, pacing back and forth," and "making gestures" toward Sallard. At that point, Richardson returned to the truck, where he observed Sallard using her cell phone again and "moving around in the front seat." When Richardson questioned Sallard about her whereabouts, she gave a different response than Hogan. Richardson returned to Hogan and asked her again about where the two had been and where they were going that day, and Hogan changed her previous account.

         ¶4 Richardson continued to write Hogan's warning but requested a canine unit based on "reasonable suspicion that criminal activity was afoot." When the canine arrived, it conducted "an exterior sniff of the vehicle," and, after the canine had alerted, Richardson conducted a probable-cause search. At that time, Officer Paul Barco and Detective Clemente Rodriguez had arrived on scene and were assisting Richardson with the search. In the truck, they found brown packages containing "almost 50 pounds" of marijuana. Sallard was placed under arrest, read her rights pursuant to Miranda, and agreed to speak with Barco. But, at some point during the interview, Sallard became "unwilling to answer any more questions," and Barco notified Richardson and Rodriguez that Sallard had "invoked" and that he had stopped all questioning. Sallard was then transported to the Douglas Police Department.

         ¶5 During booking, Richardson directed Rodriguez "to request consent [from Sallard] to search [her] phone." Rodriguez was aware Sallard "had invoked" and understood it to mean that "she didn't want to answer questions." Sallard was brought from her holding cell and told that "she [could] g[i]ve permission . . . [to] extract the data from the cell phone" and it "would go with her" once she was able to leave, or he "would have to ask for a search warrant" and "the cell phone would . . . be placed into evidence until [he] drafted a search warrant." Sallard was presented with a consent form, read and agreed she understood the document, and subsequently signed it.

         ¶6 A grand jury indicted Sallard for conspiracy to commit transportation of marijuana for sale, conspiracy to commit possession of marijuana for sale, transportation of marijuana for sale, possession of marijuana for sale, possession of drug paraphernalia, and making a false statement to a law enforcement agency. At trial, some evidence gleaned from Sallard's cell phone was introduced during her cross-examination by the state, and she was convicted and subsequently sentenced as described above. This appeal followed. We have jurisdiction pursuant to A.R.S. §§ 12-120.21(A)(1), 13-4031, and 13-4033(A)(1).

         Motion to Suppress

         ¶7 Sallard argues the trial court erred by denying her motion to suppress the contents of her cell phone because it was searched after she had invoked her rights to remain silent and to counsel. We review the denial of a motion to suppress for an abuse of discretion, State v. Cornman, 237 Ariz. 350, ¶ 10 (App. 2015), but we review legal and constitutional issues de novo, State v. Aguilar, 228 Ariz. 401, ΒΆ 12 (App. 2011). "In reviewing a motion to suppress, we consider only the evidence presented at the suppression hearing and ...


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